Anti-narcotics Activities carried out by the National Groups

In Myanmar, the Kachin State, the Northern and Southern Shan State and the Kayah State are the regions where poppy plants are grown. During the British colonial era, poppy was grown extensively in those areas. After independence, because of the KMT aggression, the internal armed insurgency, and the lack of effective administrative power of the Government in those areas, poppy cultivation could not be prevented successfully. Moreover, the armed insurgent groups themselves levied taxes and commercialized the poppy cultivation. They expanded their activities in drug trafficking, exchange of opium with arms, purchase of arms and ammunitions, which had increased the poppy cultivation. For the armed insurgent groups, opium became the main source of income and their livelihood. On the other hand, opium trade also had flourished by the activities of the armed insurgent groups. Thus there was interdependent between opium trade and the armed insurgent groups, which mutually nurtured and sustained one another.

On 18 September 1988, the Tatmadaw took over the State power, adopted the three main national causes a the national political policy, and adopted the political objective of national reconsolidation. In 1989, the Burma Communist Party collapsed and thereafterl7 armed insurgent groups returned to the legal fold and lived in peace Except the areas belonging to the Mon New State Party and the Rakhine State BCP, the rest of the areas were poppy cultivation regions. The border of the Kachin and Shan State, the Northern and Southern Shan State the Chinese-Myanmar border, the border of the Shan and Kayah States were the regions where poppy was grown largely.

Having made peace with the armed national groups, the Tatmadaw Government designated the groups' base regions as Special Regions and undertook the local development plans. Plans to eradicate narcotic drugs are being implemented as a national duty. Actually, the implementation of local development plans in those regions IS tantamount to eradication of narcotic drugs. In parallel to the Government's undertakings, the armed national groups also, under the guidance of the Government, participated actively in the efforts to eradicate narcotic drugs. Moreover, with the assistance of the various organizations, measures have keen taken to raise public awareness on prevention and eradication of narcotic drugs, to prohibit poppy cultivation, opium consumption, and drug trafficking, to arrest and sentence those convicted, to encourage crop substitution, to set up centres for treatment of drug addiction, to implement local development programmes in different sectors such as transportation, agriculture, livestock breeding, and mining. Some groups had launched Short and Long-term programmes with the aim of having their regions declared as Opium Free Zones. The Mongla Region known as Eastern Shan State Special Region (4) had already designated their region as Opium Free Zone in April 1997. Efforts are being made with objectives to declare Opium Free Zones in Kokang region in the year 2000 and Wa region in the year 2005 respectively.

The Northern Shan State Special Region (1) Kokang National Group

The Northern Shan State Special Region (2) Wa National Group

Drugs suppression efforts of special region (4) in eastern Shan State

Drug suppression Efforts Of Kachin State Special Region (1)

Narcotic Drugs Suppression Measures Undertaken by Northern Shan State Special Region (5)

Narcotic Drugs Suppression Measures Undertaken by Northern Shan State Special Region (7) (PSLA)

Narcotic Drugs Suppression Measures Undertaken by the Kachin State Special Region (2)

Narcotic Drugs Suppression Measures Undertaken by Southern Shan State Pa-O Nationals Armed Groups