The Transformation of Ho Mong and the People who have begun a New Life

 The Transformation


Ho Mong and

 the People

who have begun a New Life

The series of articles “Why Did U Khun Sa’s MTA Exchange Arms for Peace?” and its sequel “Why Did Foreigners Visit the MTA

Headquarters?” are based on facts gleaned from conversations with a  friend who was himself one of the leaders of the

MTA. I came to learn 

that some readers after having read these articles with interest, now  wished to know more about the request of the American Government

for the extradition of U Khun Sa. They also wished to know about the Hoe Mein region where the MTA had established their headquarters.  This was a region that had gained notoriety through the many articles

that had appeared in foreign magazines and newspapers. I had not  mentioned the American request for the extradition of U Khun Sa,

because I felt it was of little or no significance. But due to the many  requests by readers I decided to delve into the

subject to accede to

their wishes. In March l990, the American Government declared U Khun  Sa an international drug felon and issued a warrant for his arrest

together with a reward for information leading to his capture. I think readers already know 

that just before the exchange of arms for peace  took place, this reward was increased to 2 million U.S. dollars. After

these various announcements had been made the Charge d affaires of  the U.S. Embassy in

Yangon, went to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

and met the Director General of the Political Department in l99l to ask  for the extradition of U Khun Sa. The Director General replied

unequivocally that since no extradition treaty had been signed between Myanmar and the United States, there was no way this could be done.

Later, rumours became wide-spread that America would send in its military to seize and capture U Khun Sa. Our leaders stated categorically that they would not permit

any foreign power to meddle in the country’s internal affairs, and that they would defend any violations of Myanmar territorial integrity by a foreign military force. After the exchange of arms for peace had taken  place, voices from the U.S. and western bloc countries became louder in

their demands for extradition of U Khun Sa. On 22nd May, 1996, the U.S. Charge d’affaires again called on the Director-General of the Political

Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to ask for the extradition of U Khun Sa. The U.S. offcial suggested that U Khun Sa be deported or made to leave the country by other means. He also said that all

expenses incurred in sending U Khun Sa to the U.S. would be bone by  the U.S. Government and that they would also dispatch police officials

as escort. The Director-General of the Political Department, as in 1991,  replied that there was no international statute by which U Khun Sa

could be handed over thus. So the diplomat replied that this time he was  not asking for an extradition, but for Myanmar to take action against U

Khun Sa in accordance with the country’s existing laws and judicial procedures and then to hand him over to the U.S. Whatever the U.S. 

said, whatever the reasons given, how could the Myanmar Government comply to their request and simply hand over U Khun Sa when there 

was no legal basis? It really did not require any clarification. But when I met my friend again I did touch upon the matter to ask a few questions about the matter.

The Pyay Nyein Aye Cedi built uder

the auspices of the government after

the exchange of arms for peace.

“I want to know what comments you have heard generally on 

the news that the U.S. was asking for the extradition of your chief, U Khun Sa. Have you heard anything interesting?”

“I have heard comments from a certain quarter echoing these 


“What was the opinion and attitude of U Khun Sa and 

members of your MTA?”

“They have absolute faith that the Government will not hand

over U Khun Sa under any circumstances, so there was no reaction. To be quite frank they paid no heed. But of course certain precautions were 

taken to prevent some form of mischief or damage.”

“Oh yes! That reminds me. Did all the leaders of the MTA 

leave the Ho Mong headquarters for the city immediately after the surrender


“We couldn’t, how could we? U Khun Sa himself had to stay 

on for about another two months after the ceremonies to see that everything had settled down. Other leaders left Hoe Mong later. Some 

of course were given the task of remaining in Hoe Mong to oversee the welfare of MTA members and their families who had elected to settle 

there and also of the people in the region. Special consideration was given former MTA members who were


“U Khun Sa seems to be very much attached to the Ho Mong 


“Of course he was. He had made the small village of Ho Mong 

his headquarters since 1982 approximately, so naturally there was attachment. He was also concerned about his MTA members and 

families, especially the disabled as well as the folks in the region. He did not wish to see their lives disrupted. He himself had done the town 

planning and had it built according specifications. It’s only natural he  should have a deep attachment to


“Wasn’t it possible for all the MTA leaders to continue living 


“The Americans have been making wild accusations as it is. 

It would have made it worse if we had continued to live there Even now they’re quite persistent in their accusations that opium is still 

being grown and processed in the Ho Mong region.”

The Electric Power

Plant in the

Ho Mong region.

“Was opium cultivated in the Ho Mong


“You’re really being dense. Who would be foolish enough to 

permit opium cultivation at headquarters. In any case the soil of Ho Mong is not conducive to opium cultivation. The natural environment 

is such that opium just cannot flourish there. “

“O.K., then tell me a little more about Ho Mong and its 


“Ho Mong is a Shan word. ‘Ho’ means the ‘head’ or ‘upper 

part’. ‘Mong’ stands for nation, country or province. ‘Ho Mong’ therefore means the ‘Head or topmost part of the country or of the 

state’. It was just a small Shan village a long time ago. Mong Mong, near Hoe Mong, was designated a town and was shown on the map, 

not Hoe Mong. Later, all this changed after the KMT aggression.”

“When exactly was headquarters established at Hoe Mong

and why was this region chosen?”

“It all began around 1982/83. At the time, there was

only a small village, about 30 to 40 houses. After the MTA headquarters was set up, the houses multiplied and expanded from Ho Mong

to Mein Maing. This region was chosen for its strategic military position. If only there were good roads you could travel to and

from Taunggyi in a day. From Taunggyi to Linkhai is just 148 miles. Then from Linkhai to the Than lwin River bank, (the Tar

Sut Ferry Crossing) is 66 miles and from there to Ho Mong is just 37 miles. It’s not far at all. Then the trip from Ho Mong to the

border is just 45 minutes by car. From there to Mae Hong Song in Thailand is a two-hour drive. But there’s not much land fit for

agriculture. The surrounding environment with its thick jungle and craggy mountains made it important strategically from a military

point of view. That’s why it was chosen as the MTA headquarters.”


The T.V relay station

built by the government after the exchange of

arms for peace and the post


“When did U Khun Sa begin rebuilding Ho Mong as a


“It was about 1992. When the Armed Forces assumed state 

responsibilities and began to implement construction projects U Khun Sa followed suit and began new construction works in the Ho 

Mong/Mein Maing area.”

“So tell me how he managed to do all


“To set up new wards and build houses for his MTA men and 

families, he rented bulldozers and heavy earth moving machinery from Thailand to level the land. He had new roads and houses built at a cost 

of over two hundred and seventy thousand bahts. He did everything  systematically, in accordance with city planning rules and procedures 

and that was pretty expensive. The bazaar itself, built in proportion to  the number of households, cost over five hundred thousand

bahts. Then the old hospital was pulled down because U Khun Sa considered it too small and built a new one to replace it at a cost of over 24 million

bahts. This hospital was meant to care for the health, not only of MTA  members and their families, but also for the people of the region. In

keeping with city requirements a sports and track field was built. Teak  trees were planted to maintain the ecological balance and reforestation

was carried out. A large dam was constructed which cost 12 million bahts to generate electrical power and provide water for drinking and 

cultivation. Then to make it a typical Myanmar city, a pagoda, a  monastery, a Christian church and a school were built. He became so 

engrossed in construction work that he established an MTA Construction Department, actually a sort of construction team with 

necessary machinery and equipment, that was given the task of implementing all building 

projects. The work was not confined to Ho Mong alone. New roads,  pedestrian paths and schools were constructed for villages in the


“Are there many village tracts in the area? And is the area 

heavily populated?”

“In Ho Mong region there are 40 villages, 1364 dwellings with 

a population of 6388. Mong Taw/Mong Hta has 29 villages, 1605 dwellings with a population of 5230.”

“Didn’t you return to Ho Mong for a visit last year? What’s the 

situation like now?”

“As soon as the exchange of arms for peace had been 

completed, the Government set up a Station Hospital together with a doctor and 7 health workers attached. Four rural clinics were also set up 

for Ho Mong village tract. As far as education is concerned there are now 7 elementary schools and one middle school. A post and telegraph 

office and a TV relay station are functioning now. The Agriculture Department has also provided necessary staff, tractors, other farm 

machinery, fertilizers and seeds for agriculture.”

“What has been done for Mong Taw/Mong


“The region now has a Station Hospital, 4 rural clinics, 9 

elementary schools, one post and telegraph of fice and a TV relay station. There is also an ongoing project for land reclamation. Paddy 

seeds, fertilizers and seedlings for perennials have been provided for

agriculture. “

“What about the handicapped MTA personnel that you told 

me about? You know the ones who lost their limbs. Are they still there?”

” They are at Mong Taw/Mong Hta. Since the surrender

the Governmant has been providing them with rice and salt right up to the

persent. There is even a plan to equip 129 of thern with  prosthetic limbs.

“That reminds me, your MTA headquarters was world

famous. Foreginers were also interested in U Khun Sa and his

headquarters. So, I think, now is the time to allow foreigners to come and visit, like tourists, you know. I think it will bring in an

income that would be quite profitable.”

“There’s not much to see except for the natural scenic

beauty of mountains and forests. But it might attract tourists as the

headquarters of the MTA.”

“Is Ho Mong the same bustling place it was when you were

all there?”

“It’s not such a busy place now. How can it be? The

conditions are no longer the same. It is now under civil government administration and has become a peaceful


“And the old MTA members? How are they earning their



The Station Hospital

and State Middle School opend and run

by the government after the exchange of arms for peace.

“After the ceremonies for the exchange of arms for peace,

the Government issued National Registration Cards to each

member together with a certain amount of cash and rations. Most returned to their villages or the villages of their spouses.

In the Tantyan, Naungline, Pahpan area, former Brigade Commander U Sai Mon has gathered together a group of his men

and are engaged in agriculture and livestock breeding. Then in Mon Hin/Mon Ha U Law Mar and his group who are natives of the

region elected to settle there. The military authorities, with full trust in them have formed them into a People’s Militia and have

even equipped them with a few weapons. There are also a few others around

Taunggyi/ Namsan / Kunheng who have chosen to

live there. The Government has set up a new village in Kathai Kwin for some others and have given them land for


“I have heard that some former MTA members have established business enterprises and companies?”

“Yes. They have. Some kindred souls have got together to 

establish enterprises like gem and mineral exploration and some are in  the fishery business. Then there are those in trade as well as in the 

construction business. Immediately after the surrender they were of  course in a state of bewilderment and at a loss as to what to do. But 

now they seem to have found their vocations and are quite firmly on their feet.”

“Isn’t the Government giving all the assistance it


“Of course. In Mong Taw/Mong Hta, the authorities are 

helping not only the former MTA members but also the local populace in the villages to make their lives easier. They give all the economic and 

social assistance they can at all levels regional. sub-regional, group-wise and individuals. You can’t possibly expect the government 

to fulfill all their needs.”

“That’s understandable. How can the Goverment take full 

responsibility, since there are 17 armed groups that have made peace and the number of people involved is enormous. You know,

listening to you, I’m beginning to feel this urge to visit Ho Mong.Circumstances permitting, I think I would like to go with you one

of these days to see for myself what it is like.”


The Kathai Kwin housing

complex consisting of bungalows and

semidetached housing built to accommodate former MTA personnel.

“My friend, you’ll find our forrner MTA headquarters is

set in natural surroundings of unsurpassed beauty. It will make

you wish you could live there to commune with nature. You’ll see when you get there. I plan to go there quite often, so come along

any time you wish.”

After extending his heartfelt invitation, my friend lit a

cheroot and while puffmg on it, he gazed into the far distance. It

was hard to tell whether his thoughts had led him back to Ho Mong or whether he was in a brown study over past memories. One

thing however was clear. He was pondering deeply over something. So, reluctant to disturb him with further questions, I

got up and came away as quietly as I could. But my own thoughts lingered on the


At one time the MTA headquarters was known

world-wide, but it had earned not fame but infamy. Today the region is under the control of the Government and subject to the

laws of the country with no involvement whatsoever with narcotic

drugs. It has been totally transformed and no past shadow hangs over it. The same can be said of U Khun Sa and his men. They

have turned over a new leaf and are living within the law under the protection of the Government. They are rebuilding their lives and

earning an honest living in lawful trade and other enterprises in various regions. Whatever the accusations made against them by

some countries, the people know the true situation and gradually the world will also come to acknowledge the truth. In my view the

Ho Mong region, once notorious as a centre of narcotic production and trade, will one day become an important doorway

for trade with our neighbouring country.


Maung Hpo Shoke