Legislation and Institution
In view of the importance of the Myanmar
Forestry Sector in enhancing national socio-economic development, and ensuring
ecological blance and environmental stability, the Myanmar Forest Policy has
been formulated in a holistic and balanced manner within the overall context of
the environment and sustainable development taking full cognizance of the
forestry principles adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and
The policy has identified six imperatives
which the Government must give the highest priority in order to achieve broader
national goals and objectives. These are:
- A. PROTECTION of soil,
water, wildlife, biodiversity and environment;
- B. SUSTAINABILITY of
forest resources to ensure perpetual supply of both tangible and
intangible benefits accrued from the forests for the present and future generations;
- C. EFFICIENCY to harness,
in the socio-environmentally friednly manner, the full economic
the forest resources;
- E. PARTICIPATION of the
people in the conservation and utilization of the forests; and
- F. PUBLIC AWARENESS about
the vital role of the forests in the will being and
socio-economic development of the nation.
Forest Law, 1992
The old Forest Act of 1902 had been replaced by the new Forest Law,
which was enacted in November 1992.
Booklets of Firest Policirs, Forest Law, Forest Rules, etc.
The Forest Law (1992) high-lights forest protection, environmental and biodiversity conservation, and extended set-up of
permanent forest estates (PFEs) and protected areas system (PAS). It provides opportunities for the promotion of
private sector involvement in reforestation and timber trade, and decentralizes the management
responsibilities. It encourages community participatory approach in managing the forest resources, particularly to satisfy the basic needs of the rural people.
It demonstrates a shift from the concept of revenue generation and restriction to motivation and share of management
responsibilities with people.
Protection of Wildlife, Wild Plants and Conservation of Natural
Areas Law, 1994
The new Protection of Wildlife and Wild Plants and Conservation of Natural Areas Law, replacing the old Burma Wildlife
Protection Act of 1936, was enacted in 1994. The Law highlights habitat maintenance and restoration, protection of
endangered and rare species of both fauna and flora, establishment of new parks and naturally protected areas, and buffer zone management.
Ministry of Forestry
In the forestry sector, four governmental institutions under the Ministry of
Forestry (MOF) undertake the following responsibilities:
Planning and Statistics Department
(PSD) is responsible for coordinating and facilitating the tasks of FD, MTE and DZGD
following the directives of the Ministry of Forestry. and acts as a forum on policy issues in forestry.
Forest Department (FD) is responsible for protection, and conservation of the wildlife and sustainable management of the forest resources of the
whole Myanma Timber Enterprise
(MTE) is responsible for timber harvesting, milling and downstream processing and
marketing of forest products. Dry Zone Greening Department
(DZGD) is responsible for reforestation of degraded forest
lands and restoration of the environment in the dry zone of Central Myanmar.
Department (FD) is responsible for protection, and conservation of
the wildlife and sustainable management of the forest resources of the
Timber Enterprise (MTE) is responsible for timber harvesting,
milling and downstream processing and marketing of forest products.
Zone Greening Department (DZGD) is responsible for reforestation of
degraded forest lands and restoration of the environment in the dry zone
of Central Myanmar.
Strength of Manpower in Forestry Sector