Social and Economic Dimensions

Does Drinking Baking Soda and Water Help Pass a Drug Test

Social and Economic Dimensions


Allocation of Land to Individuals or Organizations

Small timbers and NWFPs for sale

In Myanmar, land is solely owned by the State. Only the right of land utilization is granted and leased 

out. Leasing a land for any purpose  complying with the existing laws is granted to the citizens only.

As all lands are owned by the State, the Forest Law, 1992 also prohibits private ownership on either

of the forest lands, i.e. reserved forest and protected public forest, or forest-covered land at the disposal of 

the Government. However, village or community-owned firewood plantations could be established on

the State-owned land by the villagers or local communities as stipulated by Section 15 of the Forest Law. The 

villagers who have participated in forming the community-owned firewood plantations have the right to 

use the products of their plantations.  Section 14 of the Forest Law also 

allows that, with the permission of the Government, any person or any organization, either jointly with the

Government or independently, has the  right to carry out, in accordance with 

the stipulation, cultivation and  maintenance of forest plantations, with the exception of

village-owned  firewood plantations planted by the  villagers for their use. The use of land 

is allowed on the usufruct basis.

Upkeep of traditional Access to  Forest Resources

Small timber and NWFPs for sale

When a forest area to be reserved is being surveyed, the quantity of bamboos, poles, posts and other essential forest

products  required by the local people are enumerated. Permission for the continued use of such products is clearly stated

when the area is notified as a reserved forest.

To avoid impeding  the livelihood of the indigenous people by this

reservation, exclusion areas are identified and demarcated

within  the reserved forest so that their traditional access to the forest resources is not denied. Furthermore, Local Supply or

Community Supply  Working Circles are formed in the newly formulated management plans to secure the sustainable supply

of  forest products and services for the local


Community Forestry

A workshop on community


People participating in establishing

firewood plantations

There was a significant break-through in the course of Myanmar forestry by the issuance of the “Community Forestry

Instructions (CFIs)” in l995 by FD. The CFIs  highlight land allocation for 

community forestry on the usufruct  basis, and also stress on the  importance of local community 

participation in managing forests in  meeting the basic needs of the rural 

people for firewood, small timbers and  NWFPs. Environmental conservation 

is also an important task in community  forestry.

Logs ready for further transsport

Up till the end of 1999, some 15,000 ha of community-owned firewood plantations have been

establishe. FD provides

seedlings  for firewood plantations to the  villagers without any charge.


workers at the risk of their lives

on teak rafts


Workers employed in forestry Sector

In 1998 , the number of workers employed in forestry sector was estimated

at 0.189 million, representing 1.03% of the total workers of the country.