|Social and Economic Dimensions
Allocation of Land to Individuals or Organizations
Small timbers and NWFPs for sale
In Myanmar, land is solely owned by the State. Only the right of land utilization is granted and leased
out. Leasing a land for any purpose complying with the existing laws is granted to the citizens only.
As all lands are owned by the State, the Forest Law, 1992 also prohibits private ownership on either
of the forest lands, i.e. reserved forest and protected public forest, or forest-covered land at the disposal of
the Government. However, village or community-owned firewood plantations could be established on
the State-owned land by the villagers or local communities as stipulated by Section 15 of the Forest Law. The
villagers who have participated in forming the community-owned firewood plantations have the right to
use the products of their plantations. Section 14 of the Forest Law also
allows that, with the permission of the Government, any person or any organization, either jointly with the
Government or independently, has the right to carry out, in accordance with
the stipulation, cultivation and maintenance of forest plantations, with the exception of
village-owned firewood plantations planted by the villagers for their use. The use of land
is allowed on the usufruct basis.
Upkeep of traditional Access to Forest Resources
Small timber and NWFPs for sale
When a forest area to be reserved is being surveyed, the quantity of bamboos, poles, posts and other essential forest
products required by the local people are enumerated. Permission for the continued use of such products is clearly stated
when the area is notified as a reserved forest.
To avoid impeding the livelihood of the indigenous people by this
reservation, exclusion areas are identified and demarcated
within the reserved forest so that their traditional access to the forest resources is not denied. Furthermore, Local Supply or
Community Supply Working Circles are formed in the newly formulated management plans to secure the sustainable supply
of forest products and services for the local
A workshop on community
People participating in establishing
There was a significant break-through in the course of Myanmar forestry by the issuance of the “Community Forestry
Instructions (CFIs)” in l995 by FD. The CFIs highlight land allocation for
community forestry on the usufruct basis, and also stress on the importance of local community
participation in managing forests in meeting the basic needs of the rural
people for firewood, small timbers and NWFPs. Environmental conservation
is also an important task in community forestry.
Logs ready for further transsport
Up till the end of 1999, some 15,000 ha of community-owned firewood plantations have been
establishe. FD provides
seedlings for firewood plantations to the villagers without any charge.
workers at the risk of their lives
on teak rafts
Workers employed in forestry Sector
In 1998 , the number of workers employed in forestry sector was estimated
at 0.189 million, representing 1.03% of the total workers of the country.