15-Year Plan for Elimination of Narcotic Drugs

15-Year Plan for Elimination of Narcotic Drugs

Myanmar people generally refrain from taking narcotic drugs for simple reason of their

traditional custom and religious faith. There had been instances of smuggling of opium by Arab

merchants into lower Myanmar through Pathein and Thanlyin during the 16 Century. However,

Myanmar nationals did not engage in consumption of opium at that time. Since the


of ancient Myanmar monarchs, the use of opium had been strictly prohibited by issuing royal

decrees and orders. Following the end of Sino-British Opium War, importation of opium

into China as well as poppy cultivation in Yunan Province of China were officially permitted,

thereby causing the spread of poppy cultivation practice into the adjoining regions in Myanmar

territory. After the annexation of Myanmar by the British, poppy cultivation was

legalized in

eastern areas of Thanlwin River and opium dens were also allowed to be operated without

effectively enforcing the then existing Opium Act in the such areas as Shan State, Kachin State and

Chin State. This had led to further expansion of poppy growing areas in Myanmar.

Soon after regaining independence in  Myanmar, Kuomintang (KMT) forces led by

Chiang Kai-Sheik from mainland China intruded into Myanmar soil in Shan State and launched

counter operations against mainland China taking a temporary base inside Myanmar territory. In so doing, KMT engaged in poppy growing and smuggling of opium to finance their activities and for their subsistence and subsequently, the internal armed insurgents in Myanmar also followed suit, thereby further increasing the amount of the poppy cultivation and production . After taking a stronghold in Northeastern Region of Shan State following the year 1970, the Burma Communist Party

(BCP) troops themselves engaged in poppy cultivation and production of heroin. The Government of the Union of Myanmar has exerted efforts in eradication of the drugs abuse and production which was implicated with the insurgents, through launching of a string of military operations, promulgation of strict legislation and through cooperation with international organizations. The State Peace and Development Council is strongly committed to exert all out efforts to combat the drug menace as a national duty, regardless of the availability of external assistance in this

endeavour. Accordingly, a 15-Year Plan for elimination of narcotic drugs was adopted in line with the guidelines laid down by the leaders of the State.

Adoption of Strategy and Tactics

In order to implement the 15-Year Plan for Elimination of Narcotic Drugs, the following 

twin strategies were laid down by the Government;

(a) To exert all-round efforts so as to accelerate anti-drug campaign as a national concern;

(b) To gradually eliminate the practice of poppy cultivation, while improving the economic and social life of the national races and the border areas.

The three tactics namely, (a) Law enforcement; (b) Supply elimination; (c) Demand

elimination are also further adopted to implement the above two strategies concerning drugs

elimination. Based on the above-mentioned strategies and tactics, the Plan for elimination of

narcotic drugs was designed in such a way that will fulfill the needs of the socioeconomic

infrastructure in the remote regions of poppy cultivation and uplift the social moral of the local

populace, thus enabling them to live in harmony with the law and order. 

Plan for Elimination of Narcotic Drugs within 1 5 Years

The Plan for Elimination of Narcotic  Drugs has been drawn up for the period of 15 

years and divided into three consecutive 5-Year  Plans to be implemented as follows; 

(a) First  5-Year Plan        

( from 1999-2000 to 2003-2004)

(b)  Second 5-Year Plan   

( from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009)

(c)  Third 5-Year Plan      

( from 2009-2010 to 2013-2014).

The Plan for elimination of poppy growing and production will be implemented giving priority to a total of 51 townships as follows;

(a) Fist 5-Year Plan Period

(1) 15 townships in northern Shan State

Monkoe, Kong Kyin, Laukkai, Kuan Lon, Ho Pan (excluding Special Region 2), Mong

Yai, Tang Yang,           

Lashio, Namtu, Mang Tong,

Theinni, Kutkhai, Nam Khan, Muse, Kyu Kok, Pan


(2) 1 township in eastern Shan State

Mongla, Kyaing Tong

(3) 6 townships in southern Shan State

Kun Hein, Mong Pan, Lin Khae, Si Saing, Phae Khon, Mong Kai.

(b) Second 5-Year Plan Period

(1) 4 townships in Kachin State

Maing, Wai Maw, Moe Mouk, Moe Nyin.

(2) 7 townships in northern Shan State
Hopan (Special

Region-2), Mang

Wai, Mang Phant, Nar Phant, Mong Maw, Pan Yang (Pan San), Waing kaung (Pan San),

(3) 7 townships in eastern

Shan State

Mong Yang, Kyaing Tong

(excluding Mongla), Mong Yaung, Mong Sak, Mong Tong, Mong Pyin, Mong Khat.

(4) 3 townships in southern Shan State

Ho Pong, Moe Ne, Panglong,.

(c) Third 5-Year Plan Period

(1) 5 townships in southern Shan State
Kyay Thee, Mong Shu, Nam San,

Nyaung Shwe, Lechar.

(2) 2 townships in Kayah State
Loikaw, Demorsoe.

(3) 2 townships in Chin State
Tunzan, Falan.

In order to achieve the main target of elimination of drugs abuse and

production, the following are designated as priority actions:

(a) Eradication of poppy growing;

(b) Eradication of drugs abuse;

(c) Law enforcement;

(d) Organizing the local people for their cooperation and  participation;
(e) International


In order to implement the three techniques in striving for the eradication of

poppy growing, the Government accord priority to delivering basic economic and

social activities to the poppy growing regions through effective regional

development programmes. To that end, the following actions are designated as

priorities for implementation;

( a ) Agriculture;

( b ) Livestock Breeding;

( c ) Construction of roads and bridges; 

( d ) Communications;

( e ) Energy;

( f ) Trade;

( g ) Health;

( h ) Rehabilitation 

( i )  Education;

( j )  Public awareness activities;

( k ) Law enforcement.

Activities and Expenditure Planned for the 1 5-Year Plan 

The planned activities and

their estimated expenditure during the 15-Year Plan are as follows: 

(a) Construction of Roads And Bridges

1489 mile-long earth-roads, 2504 mile-long

stone-roads, 580 mile-long tar-roads, 25 bridges, 379 buildings for education

purposes and 187 buildings for health care will be constructed at a total cost

of US dollars 3752.381 million. 

(b) Agriculture Activities 

49 agricultural education

stations will be set up and 5703.5 baskets of seeds, 735870 tons of sugarcane

cuttings, 11347664 kilograms of vegetables, 22800 seedlings of perennials, 6000

liters of pesticides (liquids), 1500 kilograms of pesticides (powder) and 110870

tons of fertilizers will be distributed. It was also planned to reclaim 1350

acres of new farmlands, to build 9 dams, 404100 acres of irrigated lands, to put

963552 acre of farmland under agricultural mechanization by using 39888 numbers

of farm machinery and 9 types of farm equipment, to establish 2930 acres of

model plantations and to conduct training for local farmers. The expected

expenditure for these agricultural activities will amount to US dollars 1063.99


(c) Livestock Breeding Activities

For distribution of livestock breeds,100 heads of bred cows, 400 heads each of

bred pigs and poultry will be distributed and 770 heads of sows will also be

provided to the villagers for joint raising purpose. Other supports including

provisions of medical supplies, materials, training and other contingencies will

also be given at a total cost of US dollars11.905 million.

(d) Public Awareness


As part of promotion of public

awareness activities, mass media information and public relations will carry

out the establishment of eight10W television relay stations and three 50W

television relay stations, installation of 3 satellite dishes and production of 45

Myanmar motion pictures on drugs education at a total cost of US dollars 58.947


(e) Communications

Seventy post offices, two 200-linetelephone exchanges, seven 20-lineexchanges

and nineteen radiotelegraph offices will be set up with a total cost of US

dollars 33.593million.

(f) Energy

23 numbers of 4 KVA generators, 27numbers of 36 KVA generators, 15numbers of 48

KVA generators,7 hydropower stations will be made available at a total cost of US

dollars134.322 million.

(g) Health 

As part of health-related

activities, health education will be provided to90 percent of the public, ten

numbers of medical treatment units will be upgraded, 25 activities of treatment

of rehabilitation, six research works and provision of equipment and employment

of staff will be carried out at a total cost of US dollars 272.14 million .

(h) Education

For the education activities, a total expenditure of US dollars 62.917 million

will be used for the cost of official functions, recruitment of staff and other


(i) Trade

To promote trade activities, opening of 4 trading camps, setting up of 1

industry of wine and fruits preservation industry, 1 sugar mill and upgrading of

6 trading camps are planned at a total cost of US dollars 3.94 million.

(j) Rehabilitation

As part of rehabilitation activities,8 numbers of domestic work straining

schools, 12 numbers of youth training schools and 12numbers of youth

rehabilitation centers for drugs addicts will be opened at a total cost of US

dollars30.091 million.

(k) Law enforcement

During the 15-year planning period for drugs elimination, organization of 22 new

special task forces, upgrading of central body, Secretariats of Chemistry,

criminal police forces, holding of drugs destruction ceremony and rewarding for

the arrests and seizure of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances will be

carried out at a total expenditure of US dollars 189.343 million.

The total estimated expenditure for the afore-mentioned activities to be

implemented during the 15-year planning period will be amounted to US dollars

5613.569 million.

If the international and external assistance such as expertise, modern equipment

and materials could be made adequately available, the drugs elimination plan

could well be implemented in a shorter period than it has been originally

planned. The challenge for elimination of narcotic drugs is not the problem of

one country alone, but the concern shared by the international community, posing

a great danger to mankind. The challenging task for elimination of narcotic

drugs is obviously the common responsibility requiring the concerted efforts of

the international community. Just as Myanmar on her part has been exerting

all-out efforts with accelerated momentum for the fight against narcotic drugs,

the international community also has the responsibility to actively cooperate in

this noble cause. The Union of Myanmar on its part is committed to carry out its

national duty with a firm determination to achieve its goal of becoming a

narcotic drugs free country within the planned period of 15 years.

Myanmar Tatmadaw (Armed Forces) has been taking a leading role in waging the war

for elimination of narcotic drugs at a great cost of sacrificing the lives

and limbs of members of the armed forces. This great sacrifice deserves to be

put on the historic record. Nowhere in the world has a nation or its armed

forces sacrificed so much in the fight against this threat to mankind. Likewise,

under the guidance of the Head of State, the Central Committee for Drug Abuse

Control (CCDAC) has also been making steadfast efforts by launching the 15-Year

Plan for the total elimination of narcotic drugs in the entire country.

It can hardly be overemphasized that the combat against narcotic drugs is not

only the responsibility of the citizens of a country alone, but also that of the

international community who seems so sensitive to issues of human suffering and

degradation. If the international community could lend their support and

cooperation to Myanmar’s humanitarian efforts for elimination of the scourge of

narcotic drugs, this common danger threatening mankind will be eliminated sooner

than present target of 15 years .

Myanmar firmly holds the view that that it is of paramount importance to engage

in cooperation not only within the sub-region, but also at the regional and

intentional level for the prevention and suppression of poppy growing,

production and trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.