The Era of the State Law and Order Restoration Council and the State Peace and Development Council

The Armed Groups' Return to the Legal Fold

       Soon after independence in 1948 the Burma Communist Party started an insurgency and various national groups such as Kayin, Mon, Kachin, Shan also took up arms against the Government. Most of these armed groups operated near the border areas and in the Shan, Kachin, and Kayah States; their insurgencies survived through the taxes levied upon opium and the profits they made from its refining and smuggling.
       From the outset of independence, successive Myanmar Governments had endeavored to achieve peace and tranquility through political and military means. Amnesties were declared, and peace talks conducted in 1953, 1963, 1974 and 1980. Although there were a few cases where some splintered insurgent factions returned to the legal fold, no impact was made on the overall situation. Only after the advent of the State Law and Order Restoration Council (Tatmadaw Government) was there a real breakthrough, when almost all the armed groups, professing trust and confidence in the sincere efforts of the Government, returned to the legal fold.
       Once the Tatmadaw had assumed the responsibilities of State, it laid down the three national causes which are being realized through four political, social, and economic objectives. In fulfillment of one of these political objectives, the goal of "the rebirth of national unity", those national groups who had taken up arms against the Government were invited to meet it and hold peace talks. At present 17 armed groups have now returned to the legal fold.
       The Burma Communist Party, formed by a group of young Marxists in 1939 with the aim of achieving independence, held the view that a Communist State could come about only through armed insurrection. Consequently, it took up arms against the government on 28 March 1948. Various armed groups also followed suit and insurrections raged across the country.
        In 1950 the BCP under foreign advice set up base camps near the Northeastern border and dispatched some 150 troops there from Central Myanmar. In January 1968 they launched their offensive operations in the Shan State, Kokang and Mongkoe areas. They were able to extend these operations in the Kachin State, the Kokang Area of the Shan State, Southern Shan State, the Kayah State, and by establishing alliances with the Kachin Independence Organization and the Shan State Army. They were able to strengthen themselves both militarily and economically.

1  - Return to the Legal Fold of Kokang National Group
2  - Return to the Legal Fold of Wa National Group
3  - Return to the Legal Fold of the Shan/Akha National Group

4  - Return to the Legal Fold of the Shan State Army (SSA)
5  - Return to the Legal Fold of the New Democratic Army (Kachin)
6  - Return to the Legal Fold of the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) Battalion (4)
7  - Return of Pa-O National Organization (PNO) Party to the Legal Fold
8  - Return of Palaung National Party to the Legal Fold
9  - Return of Kayan National Guard (KNG) Party to the Legal Fold

10- Return of Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) to the Legal Fold
11- Return of Kayinni National People's Liberation Font (KNPLF) to the Legal Fold
12- Return of Kayan New Land Party to the Legal Fold

13- Return of Shan State Nationalities People's Liberation Group to the Legal Fold
14- Return of Kayinni National Development Party to the Legal Fold
15- Return of New Mon State Party to the Legal Fold

16- The Unconditional Surrender of the Mong Tai Army (MTA)
17- Burma Communist Party (Rakhine State) Exchanged Arms for Peace