Era of the State Law and Order Restoration Council and the State Peace and Development Council

The State Law and Order Restoration Council continued implementing the projects undertaken by the previous Governments. Moreover, to be able to cooperate with other countries in eliminating narcotic drugs, the Government, on 9 December 1991, while making reservations to Article 6: Extradition and Article 32 (2),(3): Settlement of Disputes, acceded to the Convention Against Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988. Furthermore, on 20 June 1994, Myanmar also acceded to the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971.

Joint-Implementation between Myanmar, People's Republic of China and the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control (UNFDAC)

Under the auspices of the UNFDAC, the initial negotiations to cooperate in anti-narcotic activities between Myanmar, the People's Republic of China and the UNFDAC was initiated at the 11th Special Session of the UNFDAC held in Vienna, Austria in 1990, where Myanmar delegation, headed by Police-General, Colonel Thura Pe Aung, attended. Due to the very tight schedule of the Chinese Delegation, the negotiations did not take place. However, as a result of the continued efforts, initial negotiations for Anti-Narcotic Joint Activities were held for the first time in Yangon on 22 August 1990 and for the second time in Beijing on 9 May 1991, between the delegations of Myanmar, the People's Republic of China and the UNFDAC.

Consequently, the Myanmar-China Border Area Narcotic Drugs Joint Suppression Agreement drafted by the UNFDAC was signed in Yangon on 12 June 1992. According to the Project Agreement, the project period was (3) years from 1993 till 1996. The Project area was the 12 villages of Si Lu/ Pan Kai Village Track of Mongyang Township in the Shan State. The UNFDAC had provided US $ 776,5125 worth of project consultants, equipment and training facilities. The contribution from the Myanmar side included staff, their salaries, buildings and fuel. The Project objectives were to reduce the border trade of precursor chemicals used in refining narcotic drugs and heroin, the elimination of opium cultivation by implementing socio-economic and all round development programmes in the border areas, to reduce and terminate the consumption of narcotic drugs in the border areas.

Implementation of Projects

Under the State Law and Order Restoration Council, three Sub-Projects and one Pilot Project were successfully implemented. The first Sub-Project was for the all round Socio-Economic Development in the 12 villages of Silu/Pan Kai Village Tract of Mongyang Township. This Sub-Project was divided into two phases: the Pilot Sub-Project and the Sub-Project. The Pilot Sub-Project was signed on 16 October 1992 and the Project period was from August till December 1992. The UNDCP provided US$ 327,922 for the project fund and the Myanmar side contributed the staff and their salaries. The Pilot project had achieved its objective of collecting socio-economic data from the 12 villages concerned.

Following the Pilot Sub-Project the Sub-Project for all round Socio-Economic Development was signed on 29 December 1993 for the project period of (3) years from 1994 to 1996. At this project the UNDCP had funded US $ 4,066,655, while Myanmar side contributed Kyats 11,500,000 for the project and Kyats 26,412,859 for the Road Construction. The Project was extended for another 6 months and the UNDCP further funded US $ 583,000.

On the completion of the project in the road construction sector, 14.5 kilometer all season road from Mongyang to Silu, 39 kilometers of Silu-Nant road and 4 kilometers of all season village lanes were constructed. In addition, the road from , Mongyang to Ho Taung was also upgraded.

In the health sector, health clinics were opened in Wankha, Wanwane and Yanngan villages. Basic and rural health training and laboratory training for Malaria and Tuberculosis Diagnosis were set up. The project had introduced educational programmes for AIDS and Family Planning, and Solar Energy Refrigerator in Silu. Microscopes were also supplied to Silu and Mongyang clinics. Tubing and pipe-lining of spring water in Silu Lon, Silu Mai, Wanwane Upper Pankai and Wankha villages were completed.

The Project also carried out water supply for Hotao, field survey of water in Wan Yuen, Wan Kai, San Kaung and Yan Ngan villages and the general maintenance of buildings. In the sector of education and training, schools complete with tables and chairs were constructed, (3) Rs classes were organization and mechanical and carpentry workshops were opened.

The second sub-Projected was on prevention and Suppression of Narcotic Drugs, which was signed on 12 April 1994, for the period of (3) years from 1994-1996. The counterpart agency for the project was the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the project fund was from UNDCP, injecting US $ 1,129,475. As usual, the Myanmar side contributed the staff, their salaries and the buildings. The project area was the Muse township. This project had set up the Muse Anti-narcotics Unit and provided some motor vehicles, motor cycles, typewriters, duplicators and communications equipment to the Muse Anti-narcotic Unit.

The third Sub-Project was on Reduction of Narcotic Drugs Consumption, which was signed on 14 September 1993 for the period of (3) years from 1994 to 1996. The counterpart agency of the project was the ESCAP and the project was funded by the UNDCP with US $ 1,129,475. Myanmar side provided the staff, their salaries and the buildings. The project area were Pan Khan, Taw Yet, Phai Kyaung, Kon Khan villages of Muse township. Under this project, training and workshops relating to demand reduction were organized.

The  last  project  completed  was  the  Pilot  Project  for Socio-Economic  all round Development in Wan Hotao Village Track  in  Southern  Wa  Region. This project was signed on 5 September 1994 for the period of (3) years from 1994 to 1996. The  project's  counterpart  agency  was  the  United  Nations Office of Projects Services (UNOPS) and it was funded by the UNDCP  with  US$ 365,900,  while Myanmar side contributed the  staff,  salary  and  the buildings. The project area was the (80)  households  of Wan Ho Taung Village Tract. The project was extended  with  UNDCP's contribution of US$ 294,800 for (6) months. The  project  upgraded  the  (20) kilometers  of the northern  part  of  Ho Taung/Mongyang  road, repaired the (2) kilometers of the southern part of Ho Taung/ Mongyang road. 
Signing ceremony at the end of the Second Ministerial Meeting of  the trilateral cooperation on drugs abuse control among Laos-Myanmar-Thailand.
Agriculture,  livestock breeding water supply, sanitation, health and basic work were carried out under the project. The project also completed the study of socio-economic status of the area.

On-going Projects

The only on-going project under the present Government is the Drug Control and Development Project in Wa region. This project was signed on 11 July 1997 for the project period of (5) years from 1997 to 2001. The project's counterpart agencies are the UNOPS and the Border Area and National Races Development Department. This project is also funded by UNDCP with US$ 15,492,075 and Myanmar with Kyats 2835800, for the development of Wan Ho Taung Village Tract of Wa region.

Joint-Implementation between Myanmar, Thailand and the UNDCP

The Preliminary Coordinating meeting was held between the Myanmar delegation led by Police-General Colonel Thura Pe Aung and the Thai delegation led by Police-Lieutenant General Chavalit Yodmani, on 2 February 1990, at the office of the UNFDAC Executive Director. At that meeting agreement was reached to designate joint implementation areas between Myanmar and Thailand, to exchange the information from both sides, to carry out road construction, to conduct crop substitution training, to hold coordinating meetings and to draft the project in detail.

The first coordination meeting to carry out joint-implementation was held from 24 to 27 September 1990 in Yangon and the second meeting from 4 to 8 March 1991 in Ching Mai, Thailand.

Myanmar / Thai / UNDCP Cooperation

On 12 June 1992, delegations from Myanmar and Thailand signed the Agreement on Drug Abuse Control in Myanmar/Thai Border area. Under the terms of the Agreement, the project covered the 3-year period from 1993 to 1996 and the project area included 17 villages in Sanlu, Adi, and Tachileik Township, Shan State. The UNDCP contributed US$ 4,540,000 worth of technical assistance, project equipment and training while Myanmar undertook to provide staff salary, accommodations and fuel. The project was aimed at reduction of cross-border trafficking of narcotic drugs and precursor chemicals, eradication of poppy cultivation in border areas through phased programmes of social-economic development and demand reduction. 3 Subprojects were jointly implemented to achieve the aims of the umbrella project, two on rural integrated development and one on law enforcement and demand reduction.

Two sub-projects on integrated rural development covered 17 villages in Tachileik township in Shan State. Construction of schools, distribution of blankets and mosquito nets, establishment of an agricultural education station and a nursery farm, construction of a brick factory, animal vaccination, distribution of poultry and pigs were carried out. Instruction courses were conducted for educating staffs in Kengtung, Shan State.

Under the sub-project on law enforcement, anti-narcotic units were formed for Tachileik and Kengtung Townships. UNDCP provided motor vehicles, motor cycles, typewriters, photocopiers and communications equipment. Bilateral border meetings between the two countries were held in rotation while one bilateral workshop was held in December 1997 at Chiang Mai.

Under the sub project on demand reduction, training courses on demand reduction for schoolteachers in Kengtung and Tachileik townships were conducted.

Under the Memorandum of Understanding signed by 6 nations Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam in Beijing in May 1995, Myanmar has joined the implementation of 11 projects in the Sub-regional Action Plan prepared by the UNDCP. Two of them "Precursor Control in East Asia" and "Reducing Drug Use in the Highlands of East Asia" are being implemented at present. The remaining 8 projects, Development of Drug Control Procedures of Law Enforcement Agencies, Enhancement of Law Enforcement Training in East Asia, Strengthening of Judicial and Prosecution Drug Control Capacity in East Asia, Improvement of Drug Abuse Data Collection System, Sub-regional Development of Institutional Capacity for Demand Reduction Among High-risk Groups of Drug Abuse, Monitoring and Verification of Opium Cultivation and Alternative Development Collaboration in East Asia have been signed already. For the two on-going projects, UNDCP contributed US $ 128,400. All the projects, except two, which lasts 30 months and 4 years, respectively, cover 3 years each.

Master Plan for the development of border areas and the plan's performance

Border areas of Myanmar lagged behind other parts of the country in all aspects of both social and economic fields and remained backward due to their topographical disadvantages, difficulties in transport and communications, and to the ravages of internal insurgency. This f sorrowful state of social and economic underdevelopment of the areas thus needed action at the highest level of the State to correct the glaring imbalance in the economic development of the nation. For these reasons, the State Law and Order Restoration Council laid down the objectives of non-disintegration of the Union, non-disintegration of national solidarity and the; perpetuation of sovereignty, and to give effect to these objectives, formed "the Central Committee for the Development of Border Areas and National Races " on 25 May l 989 and "the Work Committee for the Development of Border Areas and National: Races" on 31 May 1989. In addition, the Ministry of Progress of Border Areas and National Races and Development Affairs was established for the first time to closely supervise and effectively implement plans for and work on the development of border areas and national races.

To ensure systematic implementation of the development of border areas, a 13-year master plan composed of one 3-year short-term plan and two 5-year mid-term plans, were drawn up and the formulation of the plan focused on widespread construction of schools, hospitals, clinics for the education and health sectors as well as on the selection of critical locations in setting up post offices, telephone exchanges and power plants for the improvement of communications and electricity supply. In the construction of roads and bridges, priority was given to significant locations in border areas and to the construction of

New building of Wein Kong Primary School.

roads and bridges linking between principal areas inside and outside of the region. For the sectors of agriculture, livestock breeding and trade, selected areas were designated for effectiveness, concentration and focus. The plan was forward-looking and so formulated as to enable the know-how and achievement in one area to spill over into surrounding areas. Under the 3-year short-term plan, the immediate needs of the area concerned were fulfilled and collection of reliable information and data on social and economic conditions of the region, and preparations, evaluation and feasibility studies for further planning were carried Moreover the major needs of the local populace were assessed and the finding of the assessment were taken into account in formulating detailed plans for coming 10 years. Under the first 5-vear mid-term plan, the government undertook to build social and economic infrastructure to pave the way for public investment. The second 5- year mid-term plan was principally aimed at giving impetus to the development of economic enterprises in border areas and to continue the infrastructure building as necessary and to encourage private investment. The second mid-term plan was to be revised and extended on the basis of the performance of the short-term plan and the first 5-year midterm plan. On completion of the 13- year plan period, sustainable development of border areas is to be enhanced with mass participation with the objective of closing the development gap between border areas and other States and Divisions. It was envisaged in the plan to ultimately eliminate the production and consumption of narcotic drugs in border areas through social, economic and intellectual development. The master plan was formulated under the political guidance of the State, based on such methodology as selective concentration, mass participation, use of proven technology and close supervision and competition The plan was formulated in a manner that will produce multiplier effect, in addition to the planned objectives.

The master plan covered a wide area of 83415.34 square miles which includes 67 townships in 18 border areas . It was planned to complete the construction of 6945 miles of road, 2069 structures for health and education sectors and the installation of 232 diesel generators, 24 hydro-electric power stations, 341 post offices and telephone exchanges and 41 television relay stations within the plan period of 13 years. For the agricultural sector, 41 agricultural stations are to be established and distribution of suitable crop strains reclamation and development of paddy lands and nurseries, construction of irrigation canals and dams, distribution of fertilizer and pesticides, tractors and agricultural implements are to be carried out under the plan. For the livestock-breeding sector, it is planned to establish breeding farms, to encourage fisheries, to distribute veterinary medicines, to disseminate breeding techniques and to assign veterinarians to border areas. For the trade sector, it is planned to construct 5 sales centers to launch agro-based factories, to seek markets to provide opportunities to set up business and to enhance investment through extension of low-interest loans. Based on the prevailing prices in 1993-96, the plan is to expend US$ 2,724 million equivalent of Kyats 17.7 billion, 65%of which is allotted to construction of bridges and roads and 20% for agriculture, 8% for construction, 2% for communications, 2% for energy, with the remaining 3% earmarked for other development work provided for in the master plan.

Sector-wise Performances under the Plan Roads and Bridges

The improvement of network of roads and bridges accelerated the social and economic development of border areas since local produces take lesser time than before to reach market and at the same time help promote
two-way trade. More employment for development were created and  as  a  result,  population  of  workers from outside increased resulting in a rise in local population, a factor  that contributed to the growth of economy. Through increased relations with outside regions  socially,  economically  and  culturally  developed  areas widened,  prices  fell  and  became  stable.  In  addition,  these conditions  in  turn  led  to  emergence  of  an  economy based on border  trade. As  of  30 October 1997, 237.7 miles of earth road, 962/2  miles  of  gravel  road,  152/7  miles  of  aphsalt road have been  constructed.  6833.6 miles  of  road  network  has  been repaired  and  30  long  bridges  and  663  small  bridges  have
Namkha Bailey Bridge.
been constructed. Kyats 4991.09 million,48.05% of the amount allotted, has been expended.


With the aim of achieving sufficiency in food for border areas, expansion of acreage under paddy and other crops, cultivation of crops suitable for local condition, adoption of modern cultivation methods, establishment of
 agricultural stations, preparation of demonstration plots, distribution of fertilizers and pesticides, sale and distribution of agricultural machinery and equipment, measures on sufficient water supply for agriculture, extension of agriculture loans and establishment of agro-based factories were carried out. Within the plan period up to 30 November 1998, 30 agricultural offices and 76 agricultural stations and 18 dams were established There are 38 dams under construction. A total of 18 tractor depots, were established. Fertilizers distributed came to 28454.05 tons while pesticides (both liquid and powder) reached 51041 litres and 58 .503 kilos respectively. 
Plantation of Japanese buckwheat as an opium substitution crop.
144904.75 bushels of seeds (annual crops) and 4278821 seedlings, 9655 acres of demonstration plots were prepared and 310993 acres of cultivable land could be reclaimed. The expenditure incurred for the Agriculture Sector during the same period amounted to Kyats 614.21 million, that is 5.9% of the total expenditures incurred.

Education Sector

To enhance educational status of the border area populace, teaching of languages native to border areas was encouraged and appropriate vocational training was provided. Besides, measure were taken to ensure access to basic education for all school-age children. On the other hand, the quality and efficiency of teaching staff were kept up through constant training 3-Rs classes were organized for adult illiterates. To groom skilled personnel in the field of administration and various vocations, special schools for youth development were set up while schools were established to train women in vocation and domestic science. Up to 30 November 1998, 351 primary schools, 46 middle schools and 14 high schools, 15 youth training schools and 10 domestic science schools could be opened. At present arrangements are underway to establish 2 degree colleges. The number of appointed teaching staff was 1946.

Health Sector

For various reasons, including topography. border areas lacked adequate health-care services in the past. To remedy the situation, the government took various, measures under the plan such as improvement of health status in border areas, preventive treatment, provision of training to produce qualified health personnel, establishment of new hospitals and health centers and provision of-modern facilities for them.

43 new hospitals and a total of 122 new village health centers could be opened in the plan period up to 30 November 1998.

Laukkai People's Hospital. People's hospital in Pann Wine, Wa Region.

Measure in other sectors other than those mentioned above included provision of 202 diesel generators, establishment of 8 hydro-electric plants in the energy sector, construction of 52 new post offices, setting up of 45 radio telephones, 54 telephone exchanges and 44 telegraphic offices in the communications sector. Nowadays, 77 television relay stations have been set up and as a result of measures in the energy and communication sectors, border areas have been able to engage in electricity-based industries and to communicate with other parts of the country in real time and have access to information on the socio-economic condition of the country and to entertainment programme as well on an equal footing with other regions of the State.

Measures taken in the forest sector included training courses on forest preservation, establishment of nurseries, reforestation, preservation of catchment areas, issurance of extraction permits and establishment of wood-based industries. In the mining sector, geological mapping and exploration work were carried out. Concessions for the extraction of mineral ores were granted to national races.

Up to 31 march l 998, the Government of Myanmar has spent over Kyats 11.3 billion for the development of border areas, the largest amount ever allotted to the development of backward areas of the country in the contemporary history of Myanmar. The necessary infrastructure has been in place for the national races to build on them and engaged in enterprise as envisage in the plan. In this way they could become entrepreneurs themselves enjoying the economic benefits on the one hand and contributing to the total elimination of narcotic drug on the other, thereby ensuring all-round development of border areas in the foreseeable future.



Budget Allotment during the tenure of the Work Committee for Development of Border Areas.
Budget Allotment during the period of the Ministry of Progress of Border Areas and National Races and Development Affairs.
The total budget allotment from 1989-90 to 31.12.98